Relational databases and big data stores are a prime target for attackers due to the amount of sensitive information residing within, such as customer information, intellectual property and proprietary secrets. For more than 15 years, the database security experts at Trustwave have helped organizations design, implement and maintain database security programs custom fit to their needs. Our clients use our database security solutions (Trustwave AppDetectivePRO and Trustwave DbProtect) and managed database security testing services to protect databases around the world. We've collected and anonymized lessons learned through our client database security engagements in this whitepaper to guide you in designing a pragmatic database security program that fulfills your risk management, data security and compliance requirements. Use this document to guide you in developing and operationalizing an effective database security program with the minimum possible impact on your organization, finances and infrastructure.