Relational databases and big data stores are a prime target for attackers due to the amount of sensitive information residing within, such as customer information, intellectual property and proprietary secrets. For more than 20 years, the database security experts at Trustwave have helped organizations design, implement and maintain database security programs to meet their specific business, security and compliance objectives. Trustwave database security solutions (Trustwave DbProtect and Trustwave AppDetectivePRO) are used around the world to protect data from the most sophisticated and persistent adversaries. We've collected and anonymized lessons learned through our client database security engagements in this whitepaper to guide you in designing a pragmatic database security program that fulfills your risk management, data security and compliance requirements. Use this document to guide you in developing and operationalizing an effective database security program with the minimum possible impact on your organization, finances and infrastructure.